Thursday, August 23, 2012

AP Art History Chapter 33 Study Guide

Here is the answer key for the "Gardner's Art Through Ages" chapter 33 study guide. This will be a big, BIG help to review for the AP Art History exam. Pss, I got a 5 on the exam with the help of this study guide!

The Development of Modernist Art


TEXT PAGES 960-1029

1. A number of scientists, psychologists, writers and politicians were instrumental in changing our view of the world from the Enlightenment belief in a mechanistic universe of the belief that reason and knowledge would lead to progress and the moral impovement of humanity. Match the individual on the left with the brief description of their work on the right.
2   Max Plank                                           1. Wrote Interpretation of Dreams
3   Charles Darwin                                   2. Developed Quantom theory
6   Albert Einstein                                    3. Theory that survival of the fittest was basis of evolution
1   Sigmund Freud                                   4. Advocated collective unconscious
4   Carl Jung                                            5. Lead Bolshevik revolution
5   V. I. Lenin                                          6. Described matter as another form of energy 
8   Karal Mark                                         7. Philosopher who held that god is dead
7   Fredrick Nietzche                               8. Champion of working classes, wrote Das Capital
2. How have the discoveries of modern science affected our view of reality?
The major scientists shattered the existing faith in the objective reality of matter, and in so doing, paved the way for a new model of the universe.

3. Give the approximate dates for the folowing significant twentieth-century events that influenced art as well as the rest of society:
      World War I:    1914–1918
      Russian Revolution:    1917
      The Great Depression:   1930s
      World War II:   1939–1945
4. List two general directions taken by avant guarde artists in response to the turmoil:
      a. They criticized political and social institutions.
      b. Others withdrew from society and concentrated their attention on art as a unique activity, separate from society at large.


1. What is meant by the term “Expressionism”?
Art that is the result of the artist’s unique inner or personal vision and often has an emotional dimension.
2. List three movements classified as expressionist:
      a. Fauvism                    
      b. German Expressionism/Die Brücke
      c. German Expressionism/Der Blaue Reiter
3. In what year was the exhibition held in which the name "Fauve" was coined?
      What did it mean?
      Wild beasts,” referring to the shockingly bright colors.
4. Name two Fauve painters.
      a. Henri Matisse                                     b. André Derain
      Describe the characteristics that Fauve paintings have in common.
      Color was liberated from its descriptive function and used for both expressive and structural ends. Color was most responsible for pictorial coherence and the primary conveyor of meaning. They combined outward expressionism, in the form of a bold release of internal feelings through wild color and powerful, even brutal, brushwork, and inward expressionism, awakening the viewer’s emotions by these devices.
5. Name two artists who belonged to Die Brücke (The Bridge).
      a. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner                                 b. Emil Nolde
      Why did they select the name Die Brücke? What did it signify?
Die Brücke signifies from the concept of the artists paving the way for a more perfect age by bridging the old and the new. It means “The Bridge.”
      Name three sources for their art.
a.   German medieval art
b.   architecture
c.   graphic arts
6. What beliefs were shared by members of the Blue Rider (Der Blau Reiter) group?
Der Blaue Reiter means “The Blue Rider”; the founders shared an interest in blue and horses.
      Name two artists who belonged to this group.
      a. Vassily Kandinsky                            b. Franz Marc
7. Who was Gertrude Stein and what was her significance for the avant-garde of Paris?
Gertrude Stein was a writer, specializing in experimental writing, who lived in Paris with her brother Leo.  They hosted avant-garde salons with international guests. She was an art patron of Picasso, Gauguin, Cézanne, Renoir, and Braque. She and Leo were collectors and facilitators of interaction among the avant-garde.
      Who painted a famous portrait of her?
8. Identify three probable sources of the dislocation of form seen in Picasso's Demoiselles d'Avignon (FIG. 33-9).
a.   Cézanne’s treatment of form and space.
b.   Ancient Iberian sculptures.
c.   African sculpture.
9. Name two Cubist painters.
      a. Georges Braque                                            b. Robert Delaunay
10. What idea did the Cubists adopt from Cézanne?
The analysis of form.
11. What is the basis of Cubist pictorial space, and how does it differ from Renaissance perspective?
They dissected life’s continuous optical spread into its many constituent features, which they then recomposed, by a new logic of design into a coherent artistic object. They rejected naturalistic depictions.
12. What is Orphism and who was its founder?
Orphism was named after Orpheus, Greek god with magical powers of music-making, by Guillaume Apollinaire who believed art, like music, was divorced from representation of the visible world. Robert Delaunay and his wife Sonia Delaunay founded Orphism.
13. How does Synthetic Cubism differ from Analytic Cubism?
Synthetic Cubism no longer relied on a decipherable relation to the visible world. Artists constructed paintings and drawings from objects and shapes cut from paper or other materials to represent a subject.
14. What is a collage?
Collage comes from the French word coller, “to stick.A collage is a composition of bits of objects, such as newspaper or cloth, glued to a surface.
15. Name three sculptors whose abstracted froms derive from the experiments of the Cubists:
      a. Jacques Lipchitz         b. Aleksandr Archipenko              c. Julio González.
16. What new material and technique did Julio Gonzalez contribute to modern sculpture?
Welded iron and bronze.
17. How did Fernand Léger modify Cubist practices?
Purism, founded by Le Corbusier, opposed Synthetic Cubism on the grounds that it was out of touch with the machine age. Léger compromised Cubist analysis of form with the Purist’s broad simplification and machinelike finish of the design components.
18. What were the Futurists trying to express in their art?
The Futurists were concerned with a well-defined sociopolitical agenda, advocating revolution, both in society and in art. They aimed to usher in a new, more enlightened era.
19. Name two Futurist painters:
      a. Giacomo Balla                                               b.  Gino Severini
      Name one Futurist sculptor: Umberto Boccioni


1. How did the attitude of the Dadaists toward war differ from that of the Futurists:
      The Dadaists were revolted at the butchery of the World War. They believed reason and logic had been responsible for the unmitigated disaster of world war, and they concluded that the only route to salvation was through political anarchy, the irrational, and the intuitive. The Futurists believed war had a cleansing action. They depicted war in a sanitized way.
2. What was the original purpose of the Dada movement?
      It initially formed as a reaction to the horror and disgust about the war.
      Although short‑lived, Dadaism had important consequences for later art. What were they?
      They unlocked new avenues for creative invention, thereby fostering a more serious examination of the basic premises of art than had prior movements.
3. Name four artists connected with the Dada movement.
      a. Jean (Hans) Arp                                            b. Marcel Duchamp
      c. Hannah Höch                                                d. Kurt Schwitters               
4. How did Jean Arp utilize chance in his work?
      For one collage, he took sheets of paper, tore them into roughly shaped squares, haphazardly dropped them onto a sheet of paper on the floor, and glued them down. Chance helped Arp preserve a certain mysterious vitality in his work.
5. What is a readymade?
      Mass-produced common objects (found objects) the artist selects and sometimes “rectifies” by modifying their substance or combining them with another object.
      Who developed them?
      Marcel Duchamp.
6.   Describe a "photomontage''
      Many images pasted together into one image, a technique used in early German art postcards.
      Who developed the technique?
      The Berlin Dadaists, particularly Hannah Höch.
7.   What did Schwitters mean by the term merz?
      He used the term as a generic title for a whole series of collaged images; it derives from the word “kommerzbank” (commerce bank), which appeared in one of his collages.


1.     Who were the Eight and what type of painting did they do?
      Eight American artists who gravitated into the circle of the influential and evangelical artist and teacher Robert Henri. They eventually became the Ashcan School. They produced images depicting the rapidly changing urban landscape of New York City.
2. Where and when was the Armory show held and what was its significance?
      Early 1913, in the armory of the New York National Guard’s 69th Regiment.  It was one of the major vehicles for disseminating information about European artistic developments in the United States. The show contained more than sixteen hundred works by American and European artists.
3. Name an influenctial work that was exhibited at the Armory show which particularly shocked the public: Nude Descending a Staircase by Marcel Duchamp.
      What was so upsetting about it?
      Critics in general found the show to be “pathological,” and one critic described the Futurist-Cubist style painting as “an explosion in a shingle factory.”

4. Who was the founder of the Photo‑Secession group and Gallery 291? Alfred Steiglitz.
      What  type of photography did he practice?“Straight, unmanipulated” photographs.
5. The American photographer who was interested in photographic abstraction was:
      Edward Weston.
6. In what way did the work of Man Ray express the ideas of Dada?
      He incorporated found objects into many of his works. He used chance and the dislocation of ordinary things to surprise viewers, as well as humor.
7. Name two American artists who were influenced by Cubism:
      a.   Marsden Hartley                      b.    Stuart Davis
8. What was the Harlem Renaissance?
      The flowering of art and literature in Harlem in the 1920s. It was a manifestation of the desire of African Americans to promote their cultural accomplishments, to cultivate pride among their fellow African Americans, and to spread racial tolerance across the United States.
9. List two traits shared by the so-called Precisionists, one thematic, one stylistic:
      a.   Thematic: a fascination with the machine’s precision and importance in modern life.
      b.   Stylistic: Tended towards Synthetic Cubism’s flat, sharply delineated planes.
      Name two artists who are considered Precisonists:
      a. Charles Demuth                                b. Georgia O’Keeffe
10. Although the artist Georgia O’Keeffe was first associated with the Precisionists in New York,  she is best known for her work in New Mexico.
      Two of her favorite subjects were cow skulls and flowers.
      Describe her style:
      She strips the subjects to their purest forms and colors to heighten their expressive power, reducing details to a symphony of basic colors, shapes, textures, and vital rhythms, almost to the point of complete abstraction.


1.     What was the purpose of Neue Sachlichkeit artists?
      All of the artists served at some point in the German army and thus had firsthand involvement with the military, which deeply informed their worldview and their art.
      List three artists associated with the movement:
      a. George Grosz               b. Max Beckmann                                       c. Otto Dix
2. For what type of subject is George Grosz most famous?
      Caustic indictments of the military.
3. List three adjectives that describe the style of Max Beckmann:
      a. Violent                                   b.          Angular                     c. Rough paint surface
4. What mood did Otto Dix create in his War Triptych  (FIG. 33-40)?
      Devastating and horrific.
      What stylistic characteristics help to create the mood?
      Eerie lighting, dark colors, and direct portrayal of violence.
5. In what medium did Käthe Kollwitz do most of her work?
      Printmaking, including woodcut, lithography, and etching.
      What social class did she most often depict?
      The poor.
6. List two German Expressionist sculptors.
      a. Wilhelm Lehmbruck                        b.         Ernst Barlach
7. According to Andre Breton, what was the purpose of the Surrealist movement?
      “The future resolution of the states of dream and reality, in appearance so contradictory, in a sort of absolute reality, or surreality.”
8. Who was the major practitioner of the style known as pittura metafisica?
      Giorgio de Chirico.
      Describe the mood created with works like the one shown in FIG. 33-44:
      Clear and simple, but sinister, strange, and ominous. Incongruous elements punctuate the scene’s solitude.
9. Name three painters connected with the Surrealist movement, and note what makes their work distinct.
a.   Max Ernst
      He began as an Expressionist, but after serving in the War became a Surrealist. He used found objects and the element of chance in his work; he used a technique called frottage, by combining the patterns achieved by rubbing a crayon or another medium across a sheet of paper placed over a surface with a strong textural pattern; and he also made collages.
b.   Salvador Dalí         
      He explored his psyche and dreams in his work, including a deeply erotic dimension, and painted in a precisionist manner, making the world of his paintings as convincingly real as the most naturalistically rendered landscape based from nature.
c.   René Magritte
      His works achieve their power by subverting the viewer’s expectations based on logic and common sense, the conscious and the rational.
10. What materials did Oppenheim combine in Object represented on FIG. 33-48?
      Fur and a teacup and saucer.
11. What type of subject matter did Frida Kahlo prefer?
      The details of her life as symbols for the psychological pain of human existence.
12. List two techniques used by Surrealist artists to free their creative processes.
a.   Dalí used his paranoiac-critical approach to encourage the free play of association as he worked.
b.   Automatism: the creation of art without conscious control and various types of planned “accidents” to provoke reactions closely related to subconscious experience.
13. Many artists share the surrealist interest in fanasy, even though they were not formally associated with the group.  However, Andre referred to one of them as “the most Surrealist of us all.” To whom did he refer? Joan Miró.
14. Who said "Art does not reproduce the visible; rather it makes visible?"  Paul Klee.
      What did this artist mean by that statement?
      Klee thought of painting as similar to music in expressiveness and in its ability to touch its viewer’s spirit through a studied use of color, form, and line, the formal elements of painting.
15. List three styles that Marc Chagall synthesized in his work.
      a. expressionism              b. Cubism                                       c.  Fauvism
      What type of subject matter did he draw upon?
      Themes from his childhood and memories from his homeland.
1. What did Malevich believe to be the supreme reality?
      Pure feeling, which attaches to no object.
      What type of forms did he use to express that reality?
      Abstract, nonobjective forms—shapes not related to objects in the visible world.
2.  An outstanding representative of the Constructivist movement was:
      Naum Gabo.
      Why did he call himself a "Constructivist"?
      Because he built up his sculptures piece by piece in space, instead of carving or modeling them in the traditional way.
3. List three new materials used by Naum Gabo.
      a. Celluloid                    b. Nylon                                             c. Lucite        
4. What did Vladimir Tatlin believe was the purpose of art?
      To design a better environment for human beings and to create useful new products for society.
5. What basic colors and forms characterize Mondrian's mature work?
Red, blue, yellow, black, white, and gray; two primary directions (horizontal and vertical), in the form of rectangles and straight lines.
      What did they symbolize for him?
      Universal beauty and expression. He considered primary colors to be the purest colors and therefore the perfect tools to help an artist construct a harmonious composition.
6. Who designed the Schröder House (FIG. 33-56)?
      Gerrit Thomas Rietveld.
      What style does it reflect?
      De Stijl.
7. What was the Bauhaus?
      A German school of architecture and design, formerly named the Weimar School of Arts and Crafts, and later called the Staatliche Bauhaus (State School of Building).
      Who founded it?          
      Walter Gropius.
Name three artists who taught there.
a.   Vassily Kandinsky           b.          Paul Klee       c.         László Moholy-Nagy
8. What did Moholy‑Nagy mean by "vision in motion"?
      He believed society was heading toward a kinetic, time-spatial existence, with relativity of motion and its measurement: in short, the character of the modern age.
9. Who created a series called Homage to the Square, and what issues did the series explore? 
      Josef Albers. The series explored the relativity of the perception of colors.
10. Summarize Gropius’ design principles that were incorporated into the Bauhaus?
a.   A decidedly positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines.
b.   The organic shaping of things in accordance with their own current laws, avoiding all romantic embellishment and whimsy.
c.   Restriction of basic forms and colors to what is typical and universally intelligible.
d.   Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, materials, time, and money.
10. Name a designer and a craftsman who taught at the Bauhaus noting the type of work done by each:
a. Marcel Breuer: furniture.
b. Gunta Stölzl: weaving.
11. List three characteristics of Mies van der Rohe's architectural style that are found in International Style architecture.
a.   The weblike delicacy of the lines.
b.   Radiance.
c.   The illusion of movement created by reflection and by light changes seen through it.
      What did Mies van der Rohe mean by “less is more”?
  That a “skin and bones,” minimal approach to architecture created pure, Modern architectural works.
12. Why was the Bauhause closed and who closed it?
      The Nazis occupied the Bauhaus in 1933 and closed it as an example of “degenerate art,” the practitioners of which the Nazis persecuted.
      What effect did its closure have on the spread of Bauhaus design principles?
      The Bauhaus artists who fled Nazi Germany disseminated, many winding up in the United Sates.
13. What did the Nazis consider to be “degenerate art”?
      Anything Hitler considered more modern or avant-garde than the nineteenth-century realistic genre; he defined “degenerate art” as any works that “insult German feeling or destroy or confuse natural form, or simply reveal an absence of adequate manual and artistic skill.”
14. Who defined a house as a "machine for living"?
      Charles Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier).
15. How does Courbusier’s Villa Savoye (FIG. 33-64) differ from Wright's houses (FIGS. 33-66 to 33-68)?
      The Villa Savoye sits conspicuously within its site, dominating it, whereas Wright’s buildings aim to interact spatially and organically with their surroundings. Robie House hugs the ground, while Villa Savoye seems to float on thin column supports. Villa Savoye used several colors on the exterior such as cream and rose-and-blue windows, while Wright’s houses have facades of brick that make them seem more organic than the machine-inspired Le Corbusier house.
16. List four stylistic characteristics of the Art Deco style:
a.   streamlined
b.   elongated symmetry
c.   simple flat shapes alternate with shallow volumes in hard patterns
d.   aerodynamic forms
      Name one building that illustrates the style:
      The Chrysler Building, William van Alen, New York City.
1. How was Frank Lloyd Wright's concern for "organic" form reflected in his buildings?
      Wright saw it as serving free individuals who have the right to move within a “free” space, envisioned as a non-symmetrical design interacting spatially with its natural surroundings. He sought to develop an organic unity of planning, structure, materials, and site, incorporating the principle of continuity.
      List two houses he designed:               
      a. Robie House               b. Kaufmann House (Fallingwater)
2. What type of form did Brancusi believe was "the most real"?
      Not the external form, but instead the essence of things.
3. What do the sculpture of Brancusi and Barbara Hepworth's have in common?
      The form of “Oval Sculpture” is basic and universal, smooth and curving, as is “Bird in Space.”  Both Brancusi and Hepworth were interested in exploring the emotional chords that sculptors could strike in viewers.
4. List three characteristics of the sculpture of Henry Moore.
a.   Organic forms.
b.   There is an active relationship between material and sculptor.
c.   Interplays mass and void.
      What was the most recurrent theme in his work?
      The reclining female figure.
      What apparently originally inspired it?
      A photograph of a Chac Mool figure from pre-Columbian Mexico.
5. What is a mobile?
      A series of balanced structures hanging from rods, wires, and plates. Air currents set the parts moving to create a constantly shifting dance in space.
1. What event inspired Picasso's Guernica (FIG. 33-73)?
      The destruction by bombing of the town of Guernica by Nazis acting on behalf of  dictator Francisco Franco.
      What symbols did Picasso use to refer to the event, and how did he emphasize its horror?
      He depicted no specific images of Nazi bombs or planes, but used more general symbols. He used a slain warrior clutching a broken sword, a gored horse, a shrieking woman cradling her dead child, a burning building, and a bull. The figures are anguished, fragmented, and have dislocated anatomical features to emphasize the horror.
2. What is the political significance of Vera Mukhina’s sculpture shown on FIG. 33-74?
      It glorifies the communal labor of the Soviet people, relying on realism to represent exemplars of Soviet citizenry.
3. What was the WPA, and what was its effect on the arts?
      The Works Progress Administration was a program to relieve widespread unemployment during the Great Depression. Under the WPA, activities of the Federal Art Project paid artists, writers, and theater people a regular wage in exchange for work in their professions.
4. The American woman photographer whose work brought the nation’s attention to the plight of the rural poor was: Dorothea Lange.
5. What is the dominant mood of Hopper's Nighthawks (FIG. 33-76)?
      The pervasive loneliness of modern humans.
6. What was the favorite subject of Jacob Lawrence?
      The culture and history of African Americans.
7. Name two American artists who were associated with the Regionalist School:
      a. Grant Wood                                       b. Thomas Hart Benton
      What type of subjects did they paint?
      Rural scenes and regional history, respectively.
8. What was the theme of much of Orozco's work?
      The indigenous history and culture of Mexico before Europeans arrived.
      In what medium did he do most of his work?
9. Why did Diego Rivera want to work in a simple, easily accessible style?
      He was a Marxist and committed to developing an art that served the people’s needs.
      List three aspects of that style:
a.   Large murals.
b.   Complex, decorative and animated.
c.   The figures consist of simple monumental shapes and areas of bold color.
Name twelve European artists who came to America because of the political chaos of Europe during World War II:
      a.                                      b.                                 c.                                 d.
Walter Gropius       Lázló Moholy-Nagy               Josef Albers     Marcel Breuer
      e.                                      f.                                  g.                                 h.
Mies van der Rohe             Max Beckmann         Max Ernst      Salvador Dalí
      i.                                      j.                                  k.                                 l.
Andre Breton                       Fernand Léger          Jacques Lipchitz  George Grosz
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